Forensic Psychology Degree and Career Guide
The professional practice of forensic psychology was recognized as a specialty by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2001 within the larger areas of clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology.1 Forensic psychology is focused on treating psychological disorders in legal contexts. Forensic psychologists work with the judicial system to provide professional psychological expertise which helps evaluate and convict criminals and prevent future crimes. The three primary areas of focused practice within the specialty of forensic psychology are clinical (diagnosis, treatment, testing, and ethics of mental disorders); forensic (forensic ethics and assessment of symptoms in a legal context); and legal (specific knowledge of the law and the legal system).
A degree in forensic psychology is typically an advanced one: a master’s degree, a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), or a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). A doctoral degree is required to become licensed as a forensic psychologist in any state. Undergraduate degrees in forensic psychology are uncommon. Instead, courses in forensic psychology may be offered as electives in undergraduate psychology programs.
Most students who enter a graduate program in forensic psychology will have an undergraduate degree in psychology (with a possible focus on criminal justice or a related field) or in criminal justice or criminology (with a possible focus on psychology). Graduates of programs in forensic psychology can find jobs in homeland security, correctional systems, law enforcement, or social services for offenders and survivors.
- There are 59 not-for-profit colleges and universities with forensic psychology programs.2
- 6 schools offer a certificate in forensic psychology.2
- No schools offer an associate degree in forensic psychology.2
- 25 schools offer a bachelor’s degree in forensic psychology.2
- 35 schools offer a master’s or advanced degree in forensic psychology.2
Table of Contents
- Forensic Psychology Degree Requirements and Coursework
- Best Value Schools With On-Campus Forensic Psychology Programs
- Select Forensic Psychology Degree Programs
- Forensic Psychologist Career Information
- Becoming a Forensic Psychologist
- Job Description
- Salary and Job Outlook
- Additional Resources
- Frequently Asked Questions
Degree Requirements and Coursework
In a forensic psychology degree program, students are exposed to coursework covering the psychopathology of criminals, proper treatment of offenders, and ethical interrogation of suspects. In these degree programs, students learn about social psychology, human development, criminal justice and criminology, criminal psychology, and statistics. Because forensic psychology is already a specialization within the broad field of psychology, no further specializations (also known as concentrations, emphases, or specialties) are typically offered.
To enter a graduate-level forensic psychology program, students are typically required to have at least a 3.0 undergraduate GPA. Graduate forensic psychology programs take between two and six years of full-time study to complete, with master’s programs taking an average of two years and doctoral programs taking an average of four to six years. Sample coursework includes:
- Evaluation and Treatment of Offenders
- Evaluation and Treatment of Sex Offenders
- Family Systems and Family Treatment
- Interrogation and Interviewing
- Issues in Family Law
- Psychology of Violence
- Psychology and the Legal System
- Research, Theory, Design, and Methods
- Social Psychology
- Theories of Criminal Behavior
- Theories of Personality and Counseling
Best Value Schools With On-Campus Forensic Psychology Programs
The table below represents the best value not-for-profit colleges and universities in the US with graduate forensic psychology programs. Of the programs offering forensic psychology studies, we only included schools with a combination of an undergraduate graduation rate of 45% or above and an undergraduate net price below $20,000 per year. A high graduation rate is usually an indicator of a school’s success, while a low net price is important since a graduate degree represents a significant investment for most students. We’ve also included other information about these schools, including the percentage of faculty with tenure, and US News & World Report rankings.
|US News National Rank3
|% Tenured Faculty4
|CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice
|BA Forensic Psychology;
BA/MA Forensic Psychology
|MA Forensic Psychology;
MA/JD Forensic Psychology and Law
|University of North Dakota
|Certificate Forensic Psychology
|MA Forensic Psychology
|Missouri State University-Springfield
|Certificate Forensic Child Psychology
|Certificate Forensic Child Psychology
|Montclair State University
|MA Forensic Psychology Concentration
|BA Psychology: Forensic Psychology
|MA Forensic Psychology
Select Forensic Psychology Degree Programs
Traditional Master’s Programs
Since 1978, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, which is part of the City University of New York (CUNY) system, has offered a Master of Arts in Forensic Psychology (MAFP). A minimum of 42 credits are required to earn the degree, which takes an average of two years to complete. The MAFP is designed to train practitioners to provide psychological services for the criminal justice system and to prepare students for doctoral study in the field. Applicants must score a minimum combined score of 297 on the GRE (the Psychology Subject GRE is not required) and have a minimum of 3.0 GPA in their undergraduate program. The curriculum focuses on how to understand, evaluate, and treat offenders and their victims. Students can choose between completing a thesis or completing a 300-hour externship in a psychological setting (under the supervision of a licensed psychologist or another approved trained mental health professional). A postgraduate certificate program in forensic psychology, as well as two combined degrees in forensic psychology and law (MA/JD), are also offered at the college.
The University of Denver (DU) offers a Master of Arts in Forensic Psychology (MAFP), a program that has been offered since 1999 at the Graduate School of Professional Psychology, which has been accredited by the APA since 1979. The MAFP requires 90 credits to graduate, and the coursework typically takes students about two years of full-time study to complete. A minimum undergraduate GPA of 2.5 is required for admittance. However, the average cumulative undergraduate GPA of applicants is 3.3. A GRE score is no longer required. During their two years of study, students will learn how to apply psychological theory, knowledge, skills, and foundational and functional competencies to the civil and criminal justice systems. Courses include Psychology, Public Policy, and Advocacy; Criminal Evaluations; Trauma and Crisis Intervention; and Socio-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychology.
Traditional Doctoral Programs
The John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY) jointly offer an APA-accredited Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Clinical Psychology that has been in existence since 2009 and focuses on proficiencies in clinical forensic applications. The program takes around five years for students to complete degree requirements, which consist of 90 credits, a comprehensive exam, a master’s thesis, and an empirical dissertation project. The PhD program is based on the Boulder (science-practitioner) model, placing an equal emphasis on research and professional practice competencies. In addition to regular coursework and a dissertation, students are required to complete a minimum of two years of supervised clinical practicum experience and take two doctoral examinations before graduating. Full-time, in-state students admitted to the program pay no tuition, and, working as graduate assistants, receive a stipend and health insurance.
Sam Houston State University (SHSU) offers a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program in Clinical Psychology with a strong emphasis on forensics. PhD students take courses ranging from Mental Health Law to Forensic Assessment and during their schooling will do forensic evaluations, consult on court cases, and participate in the treatment of forensic populations. Students in this program must complete 108 credit hours within six years. In addition to the coursework, students must take a comprehensive exam, complete an empirical master’s thesis, and write an empirical dissertation before graduating. There is no minimum GRE score or GPA required for admittance into the program. Entering classes consist of seven or eight students and year-long, full-time attendance is required. It takes students five to seven years to complete the program, which includes a one-year predoctoral internship. For the practicum requirement, students at Sam Houston State have worked in inpatient and residential settings, private practices, and correctional settings. Students in the program also provide services at the program’s Psychological Services Center serving community clients.
Online and Hybrid Programs
At Arizona State University (ASU), students can earn a Master of Science (MS) in Forensic Psychology completely online. A total of 33 credit hours are required, which are spread over 11 classes; students spend 7.5 weeks on each class. The MS degree at ASU prepares graduates for advancement in their current careers or further graduate study through coursework in criminal law, behavior, the diagnosis of mental disorders, the treatment of mental disorders, and the legal system. Coursework includes Advanced Legal Psychology, Advanced Correctional Psychology, Psychopathology, Quantitative Analysis, and seminars in Criminal Justice as well as Courts and Sentencing. Students must also complete a capstone in Forensic Psychology to graduate. While ASU’s MS program does not qualify graduates for clinical practice, it can open up opportunities for students employed in law enforcement, corrections, mental health, or related fields. A bachelor’s degree in psychology, criminal justice, or another related field is required for admission and successful applicants must have at least a 3.0 cumulative GPA.
The Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University (OSU) offers a thesis or non-thesis Master of Science in Forensic Sciences (MSFS) degree with a focus in Forensic Psychology that is accredited by the Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. The mostly online program requires students to take a total of 30 graduate credit hours with a thesis or 32 credit hours without one for non-thesis. Students may take on-campus lab courses in their second year. Students must complete a six-credit hour research project, paticipate in graduate seminars, and maintain at least a 3.0 GPA. The program takes full-time students two to three years to complete, and while the degree will not qualify graduates to be forensic psychologists, it gives students a good foundation to begin a career in the field. Courses in the program include Survey of Forensic Sciences; Ethics in Forensic Leadership; Molecular Biology for the Forensic Scientist; Advanced Forensic Toxicology; Forensic Accounting and Fraud Investigation; and Forensic Management and Organizational Development.
The University of North Dakota (UND) offers a Master of Arts in Forensic Psychology (MAFP) that is completely online. Requiring 30 credits to graduate, the part-time program typically takes students a minimum of two years to complete, depending on their availability to take classes. UND’s MAFP gives graduates a solid foundation in advanced psychological concepts, theories, and statistical skills as well as a deep understanding of the role of forensics in the legal system. In addition, students will learn how to testify in court as expert witnesses, assist courts and state agencies with evaluations, and conduct focus groups to assist lawyers in trial preparation. The completion of this program will also prepare students for entry into a PhD or PsyD program. A minimum undergraduate GPA of 3.0 or graduate GPA of 3.5 is required for entry, but no residency or GRE scores are required.
Forensic Psychologist Career Information
How to Become a Forensic Psychologist
To become fully licensed as a forensic psychologist, you will need a doctoral degree (Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) or a PhD in Psychology) to meet the minimum educational requirement. You also must complete a year or two of supervised clinical experience in your field. All states require licensed psychologists to pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). The basic steps to becoming licensed as a forensic psychologist are:
- Earn a bachelor’s degree and (optionally) a master’s degree in psychology or a related field.
- Earn an accredited PsyD or PhD in Forensic Psychology.
- Complete the supervised clinical experience required by your state.
- Pass the required exam(s), including the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP).
- Apply for and receive a forensic psychology license.
- Begin practicing as a forensic psychologist.
- Complete the continuing education requirements in your state in order to keep your license current.
Completing a forensic psychology degree opens doors to a variety of job fields, including homeland security, the fields of law and law enforcement, correctional systems, and social services. Forensic psychologists may help determine whether a suspect suffers from mental illness and be involved in the treatment of criminals suffering from addiction. Forensic psychologists may also counsel children and minors who are survivors of abuse. They may write reports, give testimony, or treat patients.
Prospective forensic psychologists should possess excellent critical thinking skills, science skills, strong writing and oral presentation skills, and a calm demeanor. Work hours for forensic psychologists can be long and grueling, especially in the weeks leading up to a trial. According to the APA, forensic psychologists might expect to work eight- to 12-hour days, but they are usually well-compensated for their time.5
With a doctoral degree in forensic psychology, graduates can pursue a postdoctoral specialization in forensics. While the job title of forensic psychologist requires a PhD or a PsyD in the field, master’s-level graduates in forensic psychology can still seek supportive roles in the field. Possible job titles include:
- Case manager
- Clinical and program director
- Criminal justice clinical specialist
- Correctional officer
- Criminal profiler
- Forensic clinician
- Forensic mental health liaison
- Forensic treatment specialist
- Juvenile offender counselor
- Law enforcement advocate
- Rehabilitative counselor
- Victim advocate
Salary and Job Outlook
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that “all other” psychologists earn an average of $99,560 per year in May 2022, with the highest average annual salary for US metropolitan areas being $137,450 in Eugene, Oregon.6 It typically takes some years of earning experience before reaching higher pay tiers. The outlook for forensic psychologists is good. Included under the umbrella of “other psychologists” by Projections Central, jobs in this field are expected to increase by 2% from 2020 to 2030 equating to 3,700 new jobs added to the workforce each year.7
- APA’s American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41): Offers a plethora of resources for students and graduates of forensic psychology programs, including a list of graduate programs, conferences, job listings, as well as pre- and postdoctoral employment opportunities.
- American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP): Offers board certification in forensic psychology to qualified applicants, as well access to as a directory of board-certified forensic psychologists.
- International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology (IACFP): Provides access to a monthly journal, quarterly newsletter, and 58 journals in criminology and psychology.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do I need a doctorate degree to be a forensic psychologist?
Yes, according to the APA, licensed forensic psychologists must possess a PhD or PsyD from an APA- or CPA-accredited doctoral program, including two years of supervised professional experience (one year of which must be accredited by the APA or CPA). In addition to a doctoral degree in psychology, licensure requirements include completing supervised experience, applying for licensure, and passing an oral or written exam (depending on the state). After gaining substantial specialized training and earning at least five years of postdoctoral experience, some forensic psychologists will elect to become Board-certified by the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP).
Should I attend a traditional or online forensic psychology program?
The answer to this question is largely based on personal preference. Online programs can provide more flexibility for students, allowing them to work and complete coursework on their own time. However, the field of forensic psychology offers very few online degrees, so you should ensure that the school you choose (whether traditional or online) is accredited and will adequately prepare you for the career path you are seeking.
How long will it take for me to get a forensic psychology degree?
Depending on the program and the level, a degree in forensic psychology can take between two to six years on average to complete, with master’s degrees taking one to two years of full-time study and doctoral degrees taking four to six years.
Do I have to get board certified by the ABFP in order to become a forensic psychologist?
Board certification is not required to become licensed as a psychologist; however, Board certification does signify that a psychologist has met established professional standards and possesses a high level of competence in the field. Forensic psychologists who plan on testifying in court may seek additional certification from the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP) to further improve their expert status.
Can I become a forensic psychologist with a master’s degree?
While master’s degrees are offered in this field, it is important to note that a doctoral degree from an APA-accredited or Canadian Psychological Association (CPA)-accredited program is required to be a licensed forensic psychologist.5 Further, the APA does not accredit master’s-level graduate programs, only doctoral graduate programs.
Does the FBI hire forensic psychologists?
Yes, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) may hire forensic psychologists to be expert witnesses in case consultations or as full-time criminal profilers in the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU).
1. American Psychological Association (APA), Forensic Psychology: https://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/forensic
2. National Center for Education Statistics College Navigator: https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/
3. US News & World Report National University Rankings: https://www.usnews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities
4. College Factual: https://www.collegefactual.com/
5. American Psychological Association (APA), What is forensic psychology?: https://www.apa.org/ed/precollege/psn/2013/09/forensic-psychology
6. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Psychologists, All Other: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm
7. Projections Central, Long Term Occupational Projections: https://projectionscentral.org/Projections/LongTerm