Psychology Career Center
Psychology is one of the most popular majors on college campuses because it provides graduates with transferable skills applicable to various careers and industries, including mental health, criminal justice, education, and business. An on-campus or online bachelor’s program in psychology prepares students for entry-level jobs in these and other fields.
A bachelor’s degree is also preparation for graduate study. To practice in a clinical setting, psychologists must have a doctorate, typically a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), and be licensed. However, graduates with a master’s in psychology can qualify for many psychology-related career options. For those looking to enter the workforce sooner, there are also career opportunities for those with an associate degree.
Table of Contents
- Why Pursue a Career in Psychology?
- Careers With a Psychology Degree
- Associate Level
- Bachelor’s Level
- Master’s Level
- Doctorate Level
- Psychology Schools by State
- Additional Resources
- Frequently Asked Questions
Why Pursue a Career in Psychology?
Graduates with a degree in psychology may find employment in psychology or in a wide range of related career fields. According to a 2021 survey of college graduates, only 41% of those with a bachelor’s or higher in psychology worked in psychology or a closely related field, while 27% worked in a field “somewhat related” to psychology, and 27% worked in an unrelated field.1 So what is it about psychology that provides such a range of career options? Students who study psychology:
- Learn how people and animals think and behave in ordinary and extreme situations.
- Use the scientific method of data collection and analysis that has practical application in many occupations (for example, business analytics).
- Gain critical thinking skills by studying and applying psychological paradigms to problem-solving.
- Build written and oral communication skills through essays, group projects, and class participation.
Mastery of these skills creates well-rounded candidates that employers seek. Psychology is applicable to jobs in almost every industry, especially in roles that involve understanding human behavior such as business, counseling, teaching, and social services. Continue reading to learn more about psychology-related careers.
Jobs You Can Get With a Psychology Degree
A psychology degree can prepare you for jobs in a number of fields. Specialized electives or a minor can give you an edge during the application process and help you find a job that fits your interests, strengths, and salary requirements. For example, adding criminology coursework to your program of study can prepare you for jobs as a correctional officer or police officer. Similarly, a health minor may be beneficial for securing health educator positions. Graduate-level education expands these career opportunities through further training and opportunities to specialize in a given field.
The table below allows you to compare selected professions you can pursue with a background in psychology based on education and employment levels as well as job growth and salary prospects. Click on an occupation to visit its profile. Below the table, you will also find profiles for less common psychology-related careers, including human factors, sales management, and more.
|Occupation||Typical Education Recommended||US Number Employed||Avg Annual Job Openings2||Avg Annual Salary||Industry Most Employed|
|Clinical and Counseling Psychologist3,4||Doctorate||62,880||9,400*||$102,740||Healthcare offices|
|Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselor/Advisor5,6||Master’s||308,000||35,000||$64,200||K-12 schools|
|Health Education Specialist7,8||Associate||56,190||7,400||$66,710||General medical and surgical hospitals|
|Human Resources Manager9,10||Bachelor’s||181,360||14,800||$145,750||Management of companies|
|Human Resources Specialist11,12||Bachelor’s||835,360||73,400||$73,080||Employment services|
|Industrial-Organizational Psychologist13,14||Master’s to doctorate||1,280||300||$144,610||Scientific research and development|
|Management Analyst15,16||Bachelor’s||808,860||99,400||$104,660||Management, scientific, and technical consulting services|
|Market Research Analyst/Marketing Specialist17,18||Bachelor’s||798,620||96,000||$78,880||Management, scientific, and technical consulting services|
|Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officer19,20||HS diploma to postsecondary||655,890||57,600||$71,380||Local government|
|Psychiatric Technician21,22||HS diploma to postsecondary||100,950||8,000||$40,760||Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals|
|Psychology Professor23,24||Doctorate||40,050||4,700||$88,470||Colleges, universities, and professional schools|
|Public Relations Manager25,26||Bachelor’s||64,280||8,900||$150,030||Advertising, public relations, and related services|
|Public Relations Specialist27,28||Bachelor’s||264,750||29,200||$78,540||Advertising, public relations, and related services|
|Sales Manager29,30||Bachelor’s||536,390||37,000||$150,530||Computer systems design|
|Sales Representative**31-36||Postsecondary to bachelor’s||2,639,980||296,000||$76,890–$109,950||Varies|
|School Psychologist37,38||Master’s to post-master’s||60,250||9,400*||$87,550||K-12 schools|
|Social and Community Service Manager39,40||Bachelor’s||162,880||18,300||$79,310||Individual and family services|
|Social and Human Service Assistant41,42||Bachelor’s||399,560||59,100||$41,600||Individual and family services|
|Software, App, and Web Developers43,44||Bachelor’s||132,740||9,700||$102,790||Computer systems design|
See Tables Notes and References at bottom of page.
Careers With an Associate Degree in Psychology
An associate degree in psychology can prepare you for entry-level jobs in corrections, criminal justice, and mental health. An associate degree typically takes 60 credit hours, or four to five semesters of full-time study, to earn. Many programs offer flexible part-time, evening, and online options to accommodate working students. Credits earned for an associate degree can commonly be transferred toward a bachelor’s degree for those who decide to continue their education.
Correctional officers are responsible for safeguarding prison inmate populations. This includes supervising inmates’ activities, enforcing the rules in jails or prisons, reporting on inmate conduct, and transporting inmates. Most correctional officer jobs require a minimum of a high school diploma or the equivalent. However, promotions are frequently based on a combination of education and experience, so having a degree can be helpful. Federal prisons usually require prospective officers to have a bachelor’s degree, preferably in security, protective service, or a related field such as psychology. Correctional officers earned an average annual salary of $54,760 per year as of May 2022, though a 7.2% decrease in employment is expected in this field overall through 2030.45,2
A police officer’s primary duty is to enforce the laws that protect people and property in their jurisdiction. Specific responsibilities vary depending on department size and officer rank. Officers may spend significant time patrolling assigned areas, making arrests, and performing investigations. Educational requirements for police officers vary. Many agencies look for applicants who have completed at least some college coursework in subjects like psychology or criminal justice. In larger cities, an associate degree is commonly required. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), police and sheriff’s patrol officers earned an average of $71,380 per year as of May 2022 and will see job growth of 7% between 2020 and 2030.20,2
Psychiatric technicians assist patients under the direction of psychiatrists, psychologists, and medical doctors. Psychiatric technicians may work with patients who are elderly, have been psychiatrically hospitalized, or are living with developmental disabilities. Daily responsibilities for psychiatric technicians include observing patients and helping them with daily activities, providing updates to physicians and other providers, and documenting patients’ conditions in the medical record. Psychiatric technicians may also administer therapeutic aid and medications. Most psychiatric technician roles require at least a postsecondary certificate. The BLS reports that psychiatric technicians earned an average of $40,760 per year as of May 2022.22 The settings with the highest employment levels include psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals and general medical and surgical hospitals.22
Social Work / Social and Human Services Assistant
Social work and social and human services assistants typically work in individual and family services or community relief services alongside social workers to assist clients with daily activities and coordinate available services. They may also assist in developing and running programs designed to assist clients in managing challenges related to substance abuse, rehabilitation, and independent living. Clients commonly include the elderly, children, and people living with addictions, disabilities, or mental illnesses. The typical educational requirement for social work assistant jobs is a high school diploma, though it is becoming common for employers to require a certificate or associate degree in a social science such as psychology. The BLS reports that social and human service assistants earned an average salary of $41,600 per year as of May 2022 and can anticipate a job growth rate of 12% between 2020 and 2030.42,2
Careers With a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology
A bachelor’s degree typically requires 120 credit hours, equivalent to eight semesters or four years of full-time study. A bachelor’s in psychology includes coursework in general education and the social sciences, building professional skills in areas such as communication, decision-making, and research. Students may have opportunities to begin building a specialization with an emphasis or minor in areas like addiction studies, nonprofit management, or organizational psychology. A bachelor’s prepares graduates for entry-level careers in psychology and for graduate study, which is required for many specialized careers.
Career Counselor / Academic Advisor
Career counselors and academic advisors typically work in the guidance or counseling departments of elementary and secondary schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools. These professionals stay up-to-date on education and workforce developments to provide informed advice to individuals making school and career choices. Academic and career counselors also offer guidance through career development programs, school visits, technical skills development, and other enrichment activities. The BLS groups career counselors and academic advisors with school counselors. While school counselors need a master’s, the BLS reports that career counselors and academic advisors typically need a bachelor’s and work experience. In addition, various associations offer optional certifications for career and academic advisors. Projections Central estimates that employment for education, guidance, school, and vocational counselors will grow by 12% between 2020 and 2030.2 The BLS reports the average salary for these professionals at $64,200 per year as of May 2022.6
Social and Community Service Manager
Community and social service managers coordinate and manage community-based service programs and organizations and sometimes manage a staff that provides social services to the public. As such, this work has strong ties to social work and psychology. Communities in rural, suburban, and urban settings benefit from the work of community service managers. Typically, these professionals work for not-for-profit or government organizations, although some find employment with private social services companies. They may manage other human services professionals who are helping clients respond to life pressures, including psychological, health, social, and financial challenges. These professionals usually need a bachelor’s in social work or a related field such as psychology. The BLS groups community service managers with social and community service managers, who earned an annual average salary of $79,310 as of May 2022.40 Employment for this occupation group is expected to grow by 13% between 2020 and 2030, faster than the average projected growth for all occupations.2 Related careers at the bachelor’s level include community and social service specialists, who earn an average of $51,620 per year, and community health workers, who earn an average of $49,900 per year, according to May 2022 salary data.46,47 Projections indicate steady growth in employment of 12% for community and service specialists and 21% for community health workers through 2030.2
Health educators, also known as health education specialists, work in community-based organizations creating, deploying, and analyzing education programs designed to help people understand personal health and well-being. These professionals focus on community outreach and may take on roles as instructors or facilitators to connect individuals with available health and wellness programs. Health educators must be familiar with topics such as nutrition, physical fitness, stress management, and mental health. In addition to knowledge of psychology, the ability to speak a second language may be helpful in this career. Health educators normally need a bachelor’s and may or may not need professional certification, depending on their job duties and local regulations. According to the BLS, health education specialists earned an average annual salary of $66,710 per year as of May 2022 and can expect an employment growth of 12% through 2030.8,2
Human Resources Specialists and Managers
Human resources (HR) specialists assist in the recruiting process for an organization. This includes screening applicants, interviewing, and new hire placement. Many human resources specialists also work in employee relations and training. Knowledge of psychology qualifies human resource professionals to understand and communicate with employees while improving the work environment. In addition to a bachelor’s, HR specialists can pursue certifications such as those offered by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). Employment growth of 21% is projected for human resources specialists between 2020 and 2030.2 Human resources specialists earned an average salary of $73,080 per year as of 2022.12 HR specialists may advance to become human resources managers, a position that typically requires a bachelor’s degree, though some employers require a master’s. HR managers commonly have additional responsibility for managing other HR professionals, overseeing benefits programs, coordinating organizational policies that impact employees and the work environment, and managing disciplinary actions across the organization. As of 2022, HR managers earned an average annual salary of $145,750 and had job growth projected at 9.2% through 2030.10,2
Management analysts, also known as management consultants, make recommendations on organizational efficiency and behavior. Organizations rely on management analysts to identify and correct organizational issues related to management structure and operations. A management analyst may recommend departmental reorganization or process and systems changes. Because management analysts rely on quantitative skills in statistics and analysis, degrees in experimental, psychometric, or cognitive psychology are especially useful for this role. A bachelor’s is the typical entry-level education for this career, although some employers may prefer candidates who have a master’s degree that includes coursework in business and psychology. According to Projections Central, management analysts will see faster-than-average job growth of 14% between 2020 and 2030, with the average salary for this occupation reported at $104,660 per year as of May 2022.2,16
Market Research Analyst
Market research analysts, also known as marketing specialists, frequently work in consumer psychology studying why consumers make the choices they do and what organizations can do to influence those choices. Market research analysts analyze how different types of packaging, marketing slogans, or messages impact consumer behavior. They also use data to determine what types of messaging an organization should use to effectively achieve its goals, such as by designing research studies to provide answers to market questions. Employers may be corporations, businesses, non-profit organizations, political parties, or other entities interested in better understanding their market. Market research analysts and marketing specialists typically need a bachelor’s in business, communications, or psychology. They earned an average annual salary of $78,880 as of May 2022 and can expect a job growth rate of 22% through 2030, which is much faster than the average for all occupations.18,2
Public Relations Specialists and Managers
Public relations (PR) specialists assist organizations in understanding consumer behavior, promote brand recognition, and work to increase audience engagement. Their primary focus is creating and maintaining a positive public image for their clients. This includes writing and publishing press releases, arranging media appearances, responding to media inquiries, and coaching clients on public communication tactics. PR specialists frequently have a bachelor’s degree in communication or a social science like psychology or business. Employment for PR specialists is projected to grow by 11% between 2020 and 2030.2 These professionals earned an average annual salary of $78,540 as of May 2022.28 Advancement to the role of public relations manager is common for PR specialists. PR managers take on additional responsibilities for managing other contributors and directing PR campaigns. As of 2022, the average annual salary for PR managers was $150,030 per year, and this occupation was expected to see job growth of 12.7% through 2030.26,2
A sales manager is responsible for hiring, training, and guiding a team of sales representatives to meet sales goals. Typically, a sales manager does little direct sales work because their primary objective is ensuring the sales team is reaching its potential. Most sales managers have a bachelor’s degree in business, management, economics, accounting, or finance, but a bachelor’s in psychology is also helpful. With a background in psychology, sales managers can better understand workplace behavior and apply psychological knowledge to management principles and activities. Additionally, an understanding of psychological research and analysis can help sales managers analyze data and make better decisions. According to Projections Central, job growth for sales managers is projected to increase by 7% between 2020 and 2030.2 As of May 2022, sales managers earned an average annual salary of $150,530.30
Sales representatives sell goods and services to a specific marketplace. These professionals work in wholesale or retail operations for a variety of organizations. They rely on psychology to understand consumer needs, prepare sales pitches and presentations, and reach sales goals. Knowledge of organizational behavior can also be helpful to sales representatives looking to make major sales at the enterprise level. Whether working in business-to-business or business-to-consumer sales, sales representatives use psychology skills daily. Sales reps working in the sales of services (excluding advertising and financial services) earned an average annual salary of $77,390 in 2022, while sales reps in wholesale and manufacturing (excluding technical and scientific products) earned an average of $76,890.34,36 Those working in wholesale and manufacturing of technical and scientific products earned an average annual salary of $109,950 as of May 2022.35 Depending on the industry, sales representatives are expected to see job growth between 4.5% and 9.8% between 2020 and 2030.2
Software, App, and Web Developers
It might be surprising to learn that psychology graduates have broad career opportunities in the technology field. With technology focusing more on persuasive design and the user experience (UX) and user interface (UI), employers in this field often seek candidates with a psychology background for their understanding of user behavior and the psychology of human-computer interactions. Web and digital interface designers earned an average annual salary of $101,740 in 2022 and have job growth expectations of 12.8% between 2020 and 2030.44,2
A psychology background helps teachers better understand human development and communication. Teachers with degrees in psychology work at all levels of the education system, from kindergarten to colleges and universities. A degree in psychology can prepare you for non-certified work in early childhood education, such as teaching in preschools and daycares. In some cases, a candidate with a psychology degree may be considered for openings in private kindergarten and elementary schools. To teach psychology in a public middle or high school, you must complete coursework in psychology (typically 18 to 30 credit hours), complete a state-approved teacher preparation program, gain certification, and become licensed. Private school requirements vary. The BLS reports that kindergarten teachers earned an average annual salary of $65,120 and elementary school teachers earned an average annual salary of $68,000 as of May 2022, with job growth expectations of 8% and 7%, respectively, between 2020 and 2030.48,49,2 Middle and high school teachers earned average annual salaries of $67,790 and $69,480, respectively, as of May 2022, and are projected to experience job growth of 7 to 8% through 2030.50,51,2
Careers With a Master’s Degree in Psychology
While some students in master’s programs in psychology go on to pursue a doctorate, others may enter the field with a master’s degree. Applicants with a master’s may have improved job opportunities and competitiveness when looking for psychology jobs, particularly in non-licensed occupations.
Human Factors Specialist
Human factors, also known as ergonomics or human engineering, is a scientific discipline that uses principles of psychology to design products and equipment for maximum safety, effectiveness, and satisfaction. A human factors specialist (or ergonomist) uses design to influence people’s behavior or moods in specific situations. For example, human factors specialists may design an airplane cabin to increase passenger satisfaction or develop a workplace ergonomics program to reduce employee injuries. A human factors specialist can hold a bachelor’s in psychology, although it is more common for employers to prefer candidates with a master’s or doctorate in human factors engineering, ergonomics, or a similar field. Learn more on our Human Factors Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
Industrial Organizational or Business Psychologist
An industrial-organizational psychologist (also I/O psychologist or business psychologist) focuses on providing solutions for workplace problems and increasing worker productivity and performance. Specific tasks include developing employee training programs, conducting research studies of the workplace environment, studying consumer reactions to new products, assessing individual employees, and providing managers with recommendations. I/O psychologists typically need a master’s to work in this field. Job growth of 2% through 2030 is predicted for psychologists working in industrial or business environments.2 Learn more on our Business Psychology Degree Guide.
Sport psychologists help athletes meet their goals, stay motivated, and conquer sports-related fears or anxieties. Sport psychologists working with athletes or teams may need to travel with them. Many sports psychologists work for the military, which is the largest employer of sport psychologists.52 The BLS does not report the average salary for sport psychologists, but the “all other” psychologist category had a reported average annual salary of $99,560 as of May 2022.53 Learn more on our Sport Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
A master’s in psychology might also be useful in:
- Business and human resources management
- Law enforcement, as in criminal psychology or forensic psychology
- Product and technology design, including engineering psychology
Careers With a Doctorate in Psychology (PhD or PsyD)
The majority of students obtaining a PhD in Psychology or a PsyD will go on to practice as clinical psychologists, teach, and/or conduct research at colleges and universities. A doctoral degree is required in all 50 states and Washington DC to become licensed in and practice clinical psychology. Many states also recognize professional certification for certain areas of practice, such as certification from the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) as a qualification for school psychologists. The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) offers certification in 13 subfields in psychology, including addiction psychology, behavioral and cognitive psychology, and psychoanalysis. Achieving ABPP certification can result in pay increases and other benefits, such as increased license portability between states.
The duties of psychologists vary by practice area, but there are some commonalities. The American Psychological Association (APA) notes that psychologists are also scientists who follow basic scientific principles in their work. Specifically, psychologists might observe, interview, survey, and test their clients. Specific duties include:
- Helping clients better understand themselves and cope with their environments
- Studying clients’ behavior through scientific analysis and finding patterns
- Helping clients change their behavior
- Diagnosing disorders (emotional, behavioral or mental)
- Developing treatment plans
- Prescribing medicine for psychological disorders (may require additional coursework and licensing)
- Developing programs for schools, companies, and workplaces
- Collaborating with other professionals, such as social workers and physicians
- Testing theories of behavior
- Gathering information through controlled laboratory experiments
Many psychologists can create their own work schedules, especially if they work in private practice. Psychologists who work in nursing homes or hospitals may be required to work on evenings or weekends. Those employed by schools, clinics, or government agencies tend to work regular business hours.
Following are summaries of common careers for those with a doctoral degree in psychology.
Child psychologists work with children and adolescents. Those who work in school settings are known as school psychologists. Child psychologists must possess exceptional communication skills since connecting with young clients can be particularly challenging. They should be empathetic and compassionate toward patients. Some psychologists in this field focus more on research, necessitating the ability to remain objective in their work. The BLS reports that psychologists in clinical and counseling practice earned an average annual salary of $102,740 as of May 2022.4 School psychologists earned an average of $87,550.38 Find more about this career on our Child Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental, behavioral, and emotional issues. Their goal is to improve their clients’ behavior while helping them adapt to their immediate environment. They may assist clients in overcoming short-term challenges or have long-term clients living with chronic disorders. Clinical psychologists can work in universities, clinics, hospitals, correctional institutions, the military, private practice, or the insurance industry. Clinical psychologists may specialize in one or more areas of psychology, including health psychology or neuropsychology. As of May 2022, clinical and counseling psychologists earned an average annual wage of $102,740.4 Employment growth for this specialty is expected to be faster than average, at 10% through 2030.2 Read more about this career on our Clinical Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
Counseling psychologists work closely with patients, helping them understand the root causes of issues and the steps to address and improve relationships, mental health, and other areas. This specialty can focus on typical developmental problems and more complex concerns, such as emotional, physical, or mental illnesses. However, counseling psychologists tend to focus more on psychologically balanced patients rather than on patients experiencing more severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Counseling psychologists work in a wide variety of settings, including government agencies, universities, health clinics, schools, and private organizations. They often focus their work on areas of interest, such as substance abuse, anxiety, or depression. Those who specialize in this profession are grouped with clinical psychologists by the BLS, who earned an average annual salary of $102,740 as of May 2022.4 Find out more on our guide to careers and degrees in counseling psychology.
Educational psychologists are research psychologists who focus on the bigger educational picture, applying theory and methodology to issues concerning learning, teaching, and training. They study student performance as well as cultural and socioeconomic factors that impact learning and behavior. In consultation with teachers, parents, and school administrators, educational psychologists might work on student evaluations; conduct research studies and analysis related to student learning and education, including evaluating teaching and testing methodologies; and design and implement intervention programs. The BLS does not list specific salary information for educational psychologists but reports that school psychologists made an average wage of $87,550 per year as of May 2022.38
Forensic psychology uses psychological principles and methods to assist legal professionals such as attorneys and judges. Forensic psychologists help those in the legal system understand the psychological aspects of cases and the people involved in the proceedings. Forensic psychologists may testify in court as expert witnesses. They can also assess the testimonies of eyewitnesses and analyze jury behavior. Forensic psychologists may specialize in criminal, civil, or family cases. In addition to recognizing psychological principles and practices, they must also understand the justice system. While the salaries for forensic psychologists vary, they generally fall in line with those of clinical and counseling psychologists. Learn more on our career and degree guide.
Gerontologists assist elderly patients in senior centers, public health centers, nursing homes, and hospitals. They work with other professionals, such as attorneys, physical or occupational therapists, dietitians, and counselors, to address clients’ needs. Applied gerontologists tend to work one-on-one with elderly clients and their families, though gerontologists may also work in group or research settings. Research gerontologists investigate the aging process and explore how to better meet the needs of the elderly population. Gerontologists come from various backgrounds, including nursing and sociology. To prepare for this career, the APA recommends completing a gerontology certificate program in addition to a doctorate.
A health psychologist focuses on helping individuals overcome and avoid health problems, often in a medical setting such as a hospital or clinic. Health psychologists also work in universities, government agencies, and corporations to research and provide solutions for health concerns. They administer behavioral tests, educate people about healthy behavior, lead group therapy sessions, and conduct research. Health psychologists may focus on a specific area of the health field such as clinical psychology, public health, community health, or occupational health. Most employment opportunities in health psychology require a doctoral degree in psychology. Learn more on our related Health Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
Neuropsychologists focus on the relationship between behavior and the brain, often working with clients who have experienced strokes, dementia, or brain injuries. They may also work with patients living with psychiatric, medical, or developmental issues. In addition to neurological research and assessment methods, neuropsychologists use psychological and physiological methods to assess their clients’ emotional states and cognitive abilities. They pair this information with assessments from other healthcare providers to diagnose disorders and implement treatment plans. The BLS reports that the category of “all other” psychologists, which includes neuropsychologists, earned an average of $99,560 annually as of May 2022.52
Psychology professors conduct research studies, publish academic papers, and teach courses at colleges and universities. They can also provide consulting services for businesses, non-profits, or government agencies. The popularity of psychology as a college major means there is continued demand for professors of psychology to fill teaching positions. The 10% projected job growth for postsecondary psychology teachers from 2020 to 2030 is higher than the average job growth rate for the same time period.2 The BLS notes, however, that colleges and universities are likely to hire more part-time (adjunct) teachers to meet this demand and will limit the number of full-time nontenure and tenure positions. The average annual salary for postsecondary psychology teachers was $88,470 as of May 2022.24
Psychometricians design exams to measure clients’ psychological attributes and score and analyze the data. The job requires skills in mathematics and statistics, as well as good communication skills. Psychometricians work for testing companies, government agencies, mental health clinics, universities, hospitals, and large corporations. While the BLS does not compile data on psychometricians, professionals working as statisticians, who do closely related work, earned an average of $105,510 as of May 2022.54
School psychologists help clients change their behavior in an effort to improve their ability to learn. They share some responsibilities with educational psychologists, both working to improve the education system. They help schools address problems such as bullying and substance use and improve programs for students with special needs or disabilities. Psychologists in school settings also work with teachers and other administrative staff to shape learning strategies for specific students or groups. They also counsel family members and evaluate student performance. School psychologists find employment in a wide range of settings, including universities, public and private schools, day-treatment facilities, residential clinics, school-based health centers, juvenile justice facilities, and private practice. They earned a median annual salary of $87,550 as of May 2022, with a predicted 10% increase in employment through 2030 (including clinical and counseling psychologist positions).38,2 Demand for school psychologists will increase as school populations grow and more school psychologists are needed to assess students with disabilities. Learn more information on our related School Psychology Degree and Career Guide.
Psychology Schools by State
To learn more about becoming a psychologist in your state, click on one of the links below. There you will find information about psychology schools, profiles of graduate programs, and a comprehensive directory of psychology degree programs in your state.
- Select One
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- Washington DC
- West Virginia
- American Psychological Association (APA): Offers more information on careers in all fields in psychology.
- Council of Specialities in Professional Psychology (CoS): Promotes a broad awareness of the various specialties available within the field and implements policies to further the development and training of psychologists.
- National Association of School Psychologists (NASP): Provides information on careers for school psychologists.
- Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP): Provides information about industrial-organizational psychologists.
- Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (SCCAP): A division of the APA, offers a number of resources to help its members advance their training and professional experience, as well as a psychology career center that links to job opportunities across the country.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are some careers in psychology?
Since psychology majors learn a broad range of skills including understanding how the human mind works, how people think, and why they act the way they do, psychology degree holders have many opportunities for employment. If they do not want to be clinical psychologists, they may choose to work in fields such as business psychology, school psychology, or sport psychology. Read more about careers for psychology majors with an associate degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, or doctoral degree.
What jobs can you get with a bachelor’s in psychology?
A bachelor’s degree in psychology can lead to careers in human services support positions, such as human and social services assistant or community service manager. A four-year psychology major can also prepare you for careers in business as a market research analyst, public relations specialist, or sales manager. Especially when paired with coursework in programming, human factors, and software design, psychology majors can also find careers as software, app, and web designers.
What jobs can you get with a psychology degree?
Psychology jobs require different degree levels, from an associate degree or bachelor’s to a master’s or doctorate. Before you decide on a degree level, you should examine your career goals and decide on the type of psychology career you want. Then, you should pursue the degree level needed for that job.
Do you need a doctorate to become a psychologist?
All states require psychologists to be licensed and as part of the licensing process, candidates must earn a doctoral degree. If you plan to practice clinical psychology, you will need a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) or PhD in Psychology. Find out more on our degrees page.
How much does a psychologist make?
A psychologist’s salary is impacted by education level, geographical location, years of experience, and type of practice. The BLS reports that US psychologists in the “all other” category earn an average of $99,560 per year, while industrial-organizational psychologists earn $144,610, clinical and counseling-psychologists earn $102,740 per year, and school psychologists earn $87,550.4,38
*Average annual job openings include openings for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists as a group.
**Includes sales representatives from the categories wholesale and manufacturing; technical and scientific products; and services except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel.
1. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2021 National Survey of College Graduates: https://ncses.nsf.gov/surveys/national-survey-college-graduates/2021#data
2. Projections Central, Long-Term Occupational Projections: https://projectionscentral.org/Projections/LongTerm
3. O*NET OnLine, Clinical and Counseling Psychologists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/19-3033.00
4. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Clinical and Counseling Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193033.htm
5. O*NET OnLine, Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1012.00
6. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211012.htm
7. O*NET OnLine, Health Education Specialists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1091.00
8. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Health Education Specialists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211091.htm
9. O*NET OnLine, Human Resources Managers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-3121.00
10. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Human Resources Managers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes113121.htm
11. O*NET OnLine, Human Resources Specialists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-1071.00
12. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Human Resources Specialists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes131071.htm
13. O*NET OnLine, Industrial-Organizational Psychologists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
14. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Industrial-Organizational Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193032.htm
15. O*NET OnLine, Management Analysts: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-1111.00
16. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Management Analysts: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes131111.htm
17. O*NET OnLine, Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-1161.00
18. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes131161.htm
19. O*NET OnLine, Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3051.00
20. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes333051.htm
21. O*NET OnLine, Psychiatric Technicians: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/29-2053.00
22. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Psychiatric Technicians: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes292053.htm
23. O*NET OnLine, Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/25-1066.00
24. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes251066.htm
25. O*NET OnLine, Public Relations Managers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-2032.00
26. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Public Relations Managers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes112032.htm
27. O*NET OnLine, Public Relations Specialists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/27-3031.00
28. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Public Relations Specialists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes273031.htm
29. O*NET OnLine, Sales Managers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-2022.00
30. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Sales Managers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes112022.htm
31. O*NET OnLine, Sales Representatives of Services, Except Advertising, Insurance, Financial Services, and Travel: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/41-3091.00
32. O*NET OnLine, Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/41-4011.00
33. O*NET OnLine, Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/41-4012.00
34. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Sales Representatives of Services, Except Advertising, Insurance, Financial Services, and Travel: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes413091.htm
35. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes414011.htm
36. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes414012.htm
37. O*NET OnLine, School Psychologists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/19-3034.00
38. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, School Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193034.htm
39. O*NET OnLine, Social and Community Service Managers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/11-9151.00
40. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Social and Community Service Managers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes119151.htm
41. O*NET OnLine, Social and Human Service Assistants: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1093.00
42. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Social and Human Service Assistants: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211093.htm
43. O*NET OnLine, Web and Digital Interface Designers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/15-1255.00
44. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Web and Digital Interface Designers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes151255.htm
45. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Correctional Officers and Jailers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes333012.htm
46. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211099.htm
47. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Community Health Workers: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211094.htm
48. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252012.htm
49. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252021.htm
50. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252022.htm
51. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes252031.htm
52. American Psychological Association, “A growing demand for sport psychologists.” Monitor on Psychology, Vol.49, N.10: https://www.apa.org/monitor/2018/11/cover-sports-psychologists
53. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Psychologists, All Other: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm
54. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2022 Occupational Employment and Wages, Statisticians: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes152041.htm