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Sport Psychology Degree Career Guide

Sport psychology, also called sport and performance psychology, is a proficiency recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA).1 According to the APA, sport psychologists are trained and licensed psychologists with special skills and knowledge related to athletes and performance.

To be a licensed sport and performance psychologist requires a doctoral degree in psychology and postdoctoral specialization in sport and performance related topics. The APA only recognizes sport psychology as a professional specialization for those licensed psychologists with a PhD in psychology, not as a specialization for a degree, although many schools offer a doctoral degree in sport psychology. It is possible to earn an undergraduate degree in sport psychology, but this is typically in preparation for continued study to earn a master’s or doctoral degree. While there are few jobs in the field that require only a master’s degree, a graduate degree in sport psychology can be useful as a bridge to a doctoral degree or as a career boost for those in athletics (like coaches, trainers, athletic directors, etc.). Psychologists training to work in sports and performance can choose to specialize in one of these areas:

  • Applied sport psychology
  • Clinical sport psychology
  • Academic sport psychology

Degree Requirements and Coursework

Graduate programs in psychology and sport psychology typically require a bachelor’s degree with a major in psychology, or at the least, a certain number of credits of psychology coursework, and possibly kinesiology or other sports-related courses. Admissions may also want to see a minimum GPA of 3.0 and a certain score on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), as well as references and experience in athletics, coaching, psychology research, or other applicable situations.

Graduate students studying sport psychology learn the basics of professional psychology and clinical work, as well as topics related to working with athletes and other types of performers. Coursework for a sport psychology program may include:

  • Advanced Kinesiology
  • Applied Sport Psychology
  • Ethics in Sports and Exercise
  • Motivational Processes
  • Psychology of Athletic Injury
  • Sport and Exercise Psychology
  • Sports in American Culture
  • Stress in Sport and Exercise

Profiles of Sport Psychology Programs

There are several schools offering a master’s degree in sport, performance, or exercise psychology. Most careers in this field require a doctoral degree, but a master’s degree can lead to further graduate study and can also be useful for physical education teachers and coaches or anyone else working with people who perform in sports.

Master’s Programs

University of Denver – Sport and Performance Psychology: The University of Denver’s Graduate School of Professional Psychology offers an MA degree in sport and performance psychology designed for professionals working in athletics, performing arts, mental health fields, or health and fitness areas. It helps these professionals develop their skills for working with those in performance positions. This program can also prepare individuals to pursue a doctoral degree in sport psychology. The focus in this program is on applied and practical techniques. In addition to coursework, students are required to participate in a practicum, a practical experience in which they put learned skills to use in settings like high school athletic departments, Boys and Girls Clubs, ski academies, and the Denver University Lamont School of Music. Applicants to the program must submit transcripts showing a GPA of around 3.5 or higher, GRE scores, letters of recommendation, and a personal essay.

National University: National University’s Master of Arts in Performance Psychology program focuses on sport science, performance psychology techniques, enhancing performance, and counseling athletes and other performers. The program requires that students complete 14 courses comprised of 63 quarter credits as well as hands-on experience. Examples of courses include Organizational Behavior, Performance Consulting Skills, Behavioral Research, Ethics in Performance Psychology, and Theories of Behavior Change. The program prepares students to work with college and professional athletes, with children in school and community sports groups, as coaches, and in performing arts settings.

Doctorate Programs

Purdue University: Purdue’s Sport and Exercise Psychology Graduate program focuses on research, but also includes the study of self-perception, motivational processes, emotional processes, social relationships, and adversity in athletics and exercise. PhD students take approximately four years to complete the program and focus on developing a program of research that will be complemented by their coursework and contribute to their dissertation. The research project must be aligned with a faculty member’s research and each student works closely with the chosen faculty member to develop and implement the project. Coursework is chosen to complement the chosen field of research for each student and the dissertation and includes advanced sport psychology, research methods, research analysis, human development, and social psychology. Students work closely with a faculty member to develop a program of research and to decide upon a course of study. Applicants must submit transcripts, GRE scores, and letters of recommendation to be considered for the program.

Oregon State University, College of Public Health and Human Sciences: Oregon State University’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences offers a unique option for those interested in graduate study in sport psychology. Students can earn a PhD in exercise and sport science with a concentration in sport psychology. The program emphasizes research and focuses on the study of the social psychology of being physically active. Completion of the degree requires 12 credit hours in research methods and conducting an actual research project with a dissertation. Students must also take 18 credit hours of complementary coursework on topics like motivation in exercise, psychosocial factors of physical activity, recreational sports administration, and other special topics. To be considered for admission to the program students must have a minimum GPA of 3.00 and must submit GRE scores along with three letters of recommendation and a personal statement of career goals and research interests. Most accepted candidates have a master’s degree, but it is not required.

University of North Texas – Center for Sport Psychology and Performance Excellence: The University of North Texas offers a PhD in counseling psychology with a concentration in sport and exercise psychology. The program gives students a broad education in practical counseling psychology, but also gives them the specific skills and experience needed to work with athletes. Specialized courses for this program include Exercise and Sport Psychology, Social Psychology of Sport, and Applied Psychology. Students must also complete a practicum, in which they gain real-world experience working with athletes and sports teams under the supervision of a faculty member. Students applying to the program must complete an online application and send in transcripts that prove a minimum of a 3.4 GPA from a master’s program or a 2.8 GPA from an undergraduate program. Students must also submit a resume and a statement of career goals.

Online Programs

Californa Southern University School of Behavioral Sciences: CalSouthern offers a 100%-online Master of Science degree in Psychology with a Concentration in Sports Counseling. California Southern’s curriculum boasts “rigorous, fresh, and relevant” content that is “unencumbered by a large administrative bureaucracy.” Students enjoy one-on-one mentoring from CalSouthern’s faculty mentors, along with a flexible schedule. Each eight-week course has the ability to be extended an additional eight weeks if more time is needed. The 15-credit MS program includes courses in Applied Sport Psychology, Current Issues in Sport Psychology, Psychology of Coaching, and Enhancing Performance: Preparation/Motivation, which you will take in addition to required core courses.

Sport Psychology Job Description

A degree in sport and performance psychology can be useful for professionals in a variety of fields. Although a doctoral degree is required to be a licensed psychologist, a master’s degree in sport psychology can enhance the skills and knowledge of athletic coaches, physical education teachers, physical therapists and trainers, and anyone who works with athletes or people in the performing arts. In addition to having the necessary knowledge of the psychology of sport and performance, these professionals are caring, patient, listen well, and can solve problems and come up with practical solutions.

What Jobs Can You Get with This Degree?

Having a master’s degree in sport psychology may open the door to coaching jobs, working in supportive roles for licensed psychologists, or the administration of recreational sports and athletics, but most positions in this field require a doctoral degree. Some of the jobs for available for licensed sport psychologists include:

  • Academic researcher
  • College or Olympic team sport psychologist
  • Private practice clinical sport psychologist
  • Sport psychologist for a performing arts group
  • Sport psychologist for a professional team

Frequently Asked Questions

Question: Do I need a doctorate degree to be a sport psychologist?

Answer: Yes, to be a certified clinical psychologist, according to the American Board of Professional Psychology, a doctoral degree is required.2 A master’s degree in sport psychology is usually recommended for those interested in enhancing their current career working with athletes and performers or those who want to continue on to earn a doctoral degree. Though you can’t call yourself a “sport psychologist” without a doctoral degree, a master’s in sport psychology may still be valuable for your career. For example, organizations such as the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) offer certification programs for sport psychology graduate degree holders.3 The AASP’s “Certified Consultant” designation (CC-AASP) is for members with a master’s degree or above who have met certain course requirements in the subjects of sport and exercise psychology and who have substantial work experience. To become a CC-AASP, you must be able to demonstrate the completion of applicable coursework, complete a minimum of 400 hours of “mentored and applied experience,” and be evaluated by the Certification Review Committee.

Question: Should I attend a traditional or online sport psychology program?

Answer: For a doctoral degree in sport psychology, a traditional program is highly recommended. An online master’s degree in sport psychology can be a good option for working students who need flexibility and who want to add to their knowledge base.

Question: How long will it take for me to get a sport psychology degree?

Answer: Most doctoral programs in sport psychology take a minimum of four years to complete. Some programs are post-doctoral and require additional specialization and study after earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Master’s programs typically take two years to complete.

Sport Psychology Salary And Job Outlook

According to the APA, sport and performance psychology is a hot career field that is growing all the time. Projections for jobs in the field of psychology generally suggest that growth will occur at a rate of 11% between now and 2022, with an average of 5,590 new jobs each year.4 According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, psychologists earn $89,810 on average with top earners making over $120,000.5 The APA states that sport psychologists in university athletic departments typically make between $60,000 to $80,000 per year, but can exceed $100,000.6

Additional Resources

References:
1. American Psychological Association (APA), Recognized Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology: http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/recognized.aspx
2. American Board of Professional Psychology: https://www.abpp.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3382
3. Association for Applied and Sport Psychology: http://www.appliedsportpsych.org/
4. Projections Central: http://www.projectionscentral.com/Projections/LongTerm
5. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm
6. American Psychological Association – Hot Careers: Sport Psychology: http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2012/11/sport-psychology.aspx