Psychology Degree Information For 2023
At its core, the field of psychology is a science studying the behaviors and processes of the mind with the goal of better understanding complex social and biological dynamics for individuals and among groups. The discipline is rooted in using the scientific method. Ultimately, its advances seek to help society better cope with a variety of social challenges and mental disorders. As the American Psychological Association (APA) notes succinctly, psychology is “the understanding of behavior.”
Psychology Degree 411 is a comprehensive informational resource for prospective students interested in pursuing a degree in psychology, which can lead to a wide range of career paths. In addition to the route of pursuing a terminal degree to become a psychologist, psychology students may also go on to start careers in every sector of the economy, from business to healthcare to education. In fact, the majority of graduates utilize their acquired knowledge and analytical skills in careers not directly related to the field. Continue reading to explore popular psychology degree levels, to find schools with psychology programs, and to learn about some of the top careers in psychology. If you’re interested in earning an online bachelor’s degree in psychology, you may also be interested in our guide for top online psychology programs.
Table of Contents
- What Can You Do with a Psychology Degree?
- Degree Levels
- Degrees Conferred by Academic Year
- Specialties and Proficiencies
- Schools with Psychology Programs by State
- Finding Accredited Programs
- Additional Resources
- Frequently Asked Questions
What can you do with a psychology degree?
There are various degree options for psychology majors at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To become a practicing psychologist who works with patients, you will generally need to earn a doctoral degree and obtain a license in your state, though some states allow individuals with master’s degrees to provide limited psychological services. This is only one of the many career options available to individuals with psychology degrees, however. Some psychology graduates work in other types of positions within the field, such as research or teaching, while some are employed in other sectors where psychological knowledge is applicable. One of the many reasons why psychology is a popular undergraduate degree is because it produces well-rounded, analytical students who are able to work in a variety of fields that require a comprehensive understanding of human behavior like social services, management, administration, marketing, sales, social work, and more.
Job Opportunities for Degree Holders
Different career choices require different degree levels, but regardless of the area of study, practicing licensed psychologists (those who conduct therapy and assessment) almost always need to have a doctoral degree in counseling, clinical, or school psychology. These psychologists might further specialize in areas such as forensic psychology, health psychology, or neuropsychology. Depending on the state, people who hold a master’s degree in psychology may also be able to provide some limited clinical services.
There are many other job options for psychology degree holders, however, that do not involve working with patients. Individuals with a doctoral degree in any subfield of psychology can work as researchers at universities or academic medical centers. Those with an associate degree, bachelor’s degree, or master’s degree in psychology may find jobs as research assistants, support staff for practicing psychologists, or non-clinical positions in other human services fields.
Psychology Degree Levels
Getting into a psychology program can be competitive, particularly at the graduate level. Holding a bachelor’s degree in psychology is not necessary for entry into most graduate psychology programs, but applicants will typically be expected to have taken some previous psychology classes. Coursework in statistics or experimental design as well as research experience may also be required. Applicants for doctoral psychology programs generally do not need to have a master’s degree; in fact, most of these programs award master’s degrees to students after completion of a thesis project and comprehensive exams. Continue reading below to find out more about degree levels and the typical requirements for each.
Typically completed in two years, an associate’s degree in psychology is offered at most community colleges. After completion, students will often transfer to a four-year program to earn a bachelor’s degree. Because more education is typically required to work in the field, an associate’s in psychology is usually a stepping stone degree that offers an educational foundation for further studies. Consider pairing a psychology associate degree with other courses in social or health sciences, business, or education to become more employable. Graduates may find rewarding careers working with children, teens, or adults in residential treatment programs, mental hospitals as psychiatric technicians, or helping people who call crisis hotlines. For more information on these types of degree programs, take a look at our Associate Degree page. For more career opportunities for psychology associate grads, check out our Careers page.
According to the Center for Workforce Studies (CWS), over 127,000 students graduated with a bachelor’s degree in psychology in 2020.1 As one of the most popular four-year, undergraduate programs in the nation, a bachelor’s degree in psychology is offered by most schools as a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or as a Bachelor of Science (BS) with a major in psychology. A BA degree typically requires more liberal arts and general education classes, while a BS focuses on the science- and math-related general education courses. Students should choose a BA or BS depending on their interests and career aspirations, but they are comparably valuable. Those who earn bachelor’s degrees in psychology may become employed in a wide range of industries since graduates are well-rounded, analytical thinkers who understand human behavior and succeed in jobs that require strong social and communication skills. See PD411’s Job Board for openings in your state. A growing number of bachelor’s degree programs in psychology are being offered online. See our list of top online psychology programs for more.
Much of the appeal of a bachelor’s in psychology is due to the fact that it prepares graduates for a wide range of career opportunities. A 2019 survey of college graduates by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) reported that of those who were employed and had a bachelor’s degree or higher in psychology, just 27% reported working in psychology or a closely related field, 35% reported working in a field somewhat related to psychology, and 38% reported working in an unrelated field.2 Approximately 3.7 million people in the workforce held a bachelor’s degree in psychology in 2019. For most of them (57%), that was their highest degree.1 Their careers spanned many fields, including social workers; management and administrative occupations; counselors; other service occupations; and marketing and sales occupations.1 About 43% of people with bachelor’s in psychology degrees also had graduate degrees; 14% of these were in psychology (most master’s degrees) and 28% were in other fields, with the most common of those being social work, law/legal studies, medicine, and education.1 To find out more about earning an undergraduate degree in psychology, read our bachelor’s degree guide.
The CWS reported that over 30,000 master’s degrees in psychology were awarded in 2020.1 A master’s degree in psychology is typically a one- to two-year graduate degree for full-time students. Offered as a Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Science (MS), the job outlook for those holding a master’s in psychology is highly positive.
There are many different types of master’s degree programs in psychology. Some schools offer generalist programs, which provide an overview of graduate-level topics in psychology, while others offer training in specialized areas. According to the APA, clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and industrial/organizational psychology are the three most frequently-earned master’s degrees in the field.3
The CWS survey reported that over 507,000 Americans in the workforce have a master’s degree in psychology as their highest degree, and they were employed in 71 out of the total 129 job categories, with the most common ones being counseling, psychology, social work, and management.1 Those with significant working experience can have successful careers in market research and consulting, commonly working under a licensed psychologist’s direction. In some states, individuals with a master’s degree in psychology can become licensed to provide limited clinical services, though they must do so under the supervision of a licensed, doctoral-level psychologist. The 2019 NCSES survey found that of those who were employed and had a master’s degree or higher in psychology, 71% reported working in psychology or a closely related field, 18% reported working in a field somewhat related to psychology, and 11% reported working in an unrelated field.2
Not all master’s degree in psychology programs are designed to prepare graduates for the workforce; some are focused on developing students for PsyD or PhD degrees. For more information on master’s degrees, check out our Master’s Degree page.
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
A Doctor of Psychology, or PsyD, is a doctoral-level professional degree that trains students to provide assessment and therapy services to patients and clients. A PsyD can only be earned in the areas of counseling, clinical, or school psychology, as these are the three subfields that are eligible for licensure and clinical practice. Although PsyD programs include less of a focus on research than PhD programs, students are still required to complete thesis and dissertation projects and may become involved in other research opportunities.
Most PsyD degree programs take between four and six years to complete. Doctor of Psychology programs typically have higher acceptance rates and a greater number of graduates each year than their PhD counterparts, so PsyD programs may be easier to get into.4 However, due to the fact that they are often offered at professional schools of psychology instead of large public and private research universities, students tend to receive less financial assistance and graduate with more debt than those in PhD in Psychology programs. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), clinical and counseling psychologists earned an average annual salary of $99,640 as of May 2021.5If you would like to learn more about the PsyD, check out our Doctor of Psychology page. Read on to learn about the PhD in Psychology degree and the major differences between the two psychology doctoral degree types.
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Psychology
A PhD in psychology typically requires between five and seven years of graduate study. In comparison to PsyD programs, PhD programs generally require more involvement in research. PhD students in counseling, clinical, and school psychology programs can expect to be prepared for careers in clinical practice, research, or teaching after graduation, as these programs incorporate training in all of these areas. PhD programs in other subfields of psychology (such as cognitive, social, or developmental psychology) do not include clinical training and graduates cannot become licensed to practice; instead, they generally work in research-focused positions. The employment opportunities for PhD in psychology holders include universities and four-year colleges, hospitals, outpatient clinics, community health centers, primary care offices, and college counseling centers.
PhD students also tend to receive more funding for their degrees than PsyDs, so they tend to graduate with less debt than their PsyD counterparts. However, there can be wide variation in earnings according to specialty and work setting. For example, clinical and counseling psychologists earned an average of $99,640 in 2021, while industrial-organizaitonal psycholgoists earned $113,320, school psychologists earned $82,770, and psychologists in the “all other” category earned $98,010.5-8For more information about this degree, check out our PhD in Psychology page.
Differences between PsyD and PhD in Psychology Degrees
Since both a PsyD and PhD in Psychology can lead to licensure as a clinical psychologist, it can be confusing to decide which degree is best for your career goals. To help you with this choice, we have created the table below that highlights some of the major differences (and similarities) between the two doctoral degrees.
|Attribute||PsyD||PhD in Psychology|
|Type of Degree||Doctor of Psychology||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Typical Type of School Offered||Professional Schools of Psychology||Private or Public Research Universities|
|Av. Years to Complete4||4.98||6.18|
|Target Careers||Clinical Psychologist||Clinical Psychologist;|
|Primary Initial Employment Setting4||Independent Practice (40.43%)||Hospital/Medical Center (56.32%)|
|Secondary Initial Employment Setting4||Hospital/Medical Center (26.77%)||Academic Teaching (55.38%)|
|Thesis or Dissertation Required?||Yes||Yes|
|Primary Focus of Degree||Clinical||Research|
|Av. % Admission Offers4||39.22%||11.01%|
|Av. # Graduates per Academic Year4||20||7|
Psychology Degrees Conferred by Academic Year
Psychology is a very popular field of study. It ranks sixth out of approximately 30 fields tracked, with only business, biological/medical sciences, engineering, health professions, and social sciences/history conferring more bachelor’s degrees in 2019-20.9 The table below reflects the rising popularity of psychology degrees over time. The first academic year for which we collected data was 1967-68 and the last academic year reflected is 2018-19, with every decade in between also represented. As you can see, the number of psychology degrees conferred at all levels has steadily increased between 1967 to 2020, with the most rapid increase taking place at the master’s level, followed by the doctoral level, with the bachelor’s degree following close behind.9 Over time, the compounded annual growth rate for all degree levels is 2.5%.
*CAGR: compounded annual growth rate, 1968-2020.
Psychology Specialties and Proficiencies
The APA recognizes certain specialties and proficiencies in the field of professional psychology. The Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (CRSPPP) was formed in 1995 to review, define, and designate specialties and proficiencies in the field, which had previously been done on an informal, de facto basis. A specialty is “a defined area of psychological practice which requires advanced knowledge and skills acquired through an organized sequence of education and training.” As of 2022, the APA recognizes 18 different specialties, including child and adolescent psychology; forensic psychology; and school psychology, as well as more recent additions like group psychology/psychotherapy; serious mental illness psychology; and clinical psychopharmacology.10 A proficiency is “defined by a core of psychological knowledge and skills, and includes specific methods for how psychologists typically acquire its knowledge and skills.” As of 2022, the APA officially recognizes three proficiencies: addiction psychology, sport psychology, and biofeedback and applied psychophysiology.10 Expertise in these specialties and proficiencies can be gained through graduate-level study and professional clinical experience. Psychologists can also pursue certification in many of these areas through the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), which can increase job opportunities and income potential.
Behavioral and Cognitive Psychology
Behavioral and cognitive psychology has been recognized as a specialty by the APA since the year 2000. Psychologists practicing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may treat people with anxiety disorders or depression, substance abuse issues, and developmental disorders. They may also help couples and families in addition to individuals. They may incorporate treatments including conditioning, behavioral skills training, behavior modification, and acceptance and commitment therapy, in addition to other methods. People interested in being cognitive-behavioral psychologists will need to pursue a doctoral degree. Read more about these degree pathways on our cognitive behavioral psychology degrees page.
Child and Adolescent Psychology
The APA has recognized clinical child psychology as a specialty since 1998 and students in a child psychology degree program receive training in topics such as cognitive and social development, how family and school environments can affect well-being, medical and biological factors related to development, and common psychological conditions diagnosed during childhood. This knowledge is then used to conduct therapy and evaluations with children ranging from infancy to adolescence as well as their families. To become a clinical child psychologist, you must earn a doctoral degree in counseling, clinical, or school psychology, which will provide general clinical training and allow for licensure. Individuals planning to specialize in clinical child psychology will generally tailor this training by completing child-specific coursework, practicum experiences, predoctoral internships, and postdoctoral fellowships. You can read more about these degrees on our child psychology degrees page.
Clinical psychology is a broad specialty in the field that was first recognized in 1998. People in clinical psychology degree programs learn about psychopathology and how to provide health care that examines patients’ mental and behavioral health, while integrating skills from other disciplines within and outside of the field of psychology. Clinical psychology is not confined to any particular age, culture, or socioeconomic group, and focus areas might be on mental and emotional health, physical health such as chronic illness management, or working with specific groups such as the elderly, children, or students. Practicing clinical psychologists need a doctoral degree along with post-doctoral experience and may provide clinical or counseling services in sectors such as research, education, training, and health. Find out more about clinical psychologists and what they do on our careers page, and read more about clinical psychology degrees on clinical psychology degrees page.
Counseling psychology, first recognized as an APA specialty in 1998, involves using effective intervention skills for clients across diverse cultural and demographic backgrounds. Students in counseling psychology degree programs are trained to address a wide range of psychological and emotional concerns and may work in most settings where psychological professionals are employed, including private practices, psychological clinics, hospitals, and universities. In most states, you must earn a doctoral degree in counseling psychology to become licensed and practice as a counseling psychologist, though some states may allow limited practice by master’s-level graduates. Graduates of counseling psychology programs should have a strong practical and theoretical understanding of counseling theory, group and individual counseling, child and adolescent psychology, human development, couples therapy, and intervention strategies. Find out more about this degree on our counseling psychology degrees page.
Recognized by the APA as a specialty in 2001, a degree in forensic psychology offers an ideal area of specialization for students interested in law enforcement and legal settings. Students in forensic psychology programs learn to conduct thorough assessments of individuals involved with the legal system to determine whether an individual has any psychological disorders or other circumstances that may affect ongoing legal proceedings. Because forensic psychology involves providing clinical services, it is necessary to earn a degree that allows for clinical licensure. In most states, a doctoral degree in clinical psychology that includes coursework and clinical experience in forensic psychology will be required. In contrast with criminal psychology, forensic psychology focuses on the mentality of the suspect, as well as the emotional well-being of the victims. By earning a degree in forensic psychology, students will learn to determine whether a defendant is mentally insane or mentally handicapped and identify various personality disorders and sociopathic behavior. You can read more about forensic psychology degrees here.
The primary focus of a clinical health psychology degree (recognized by the APA as a specialty in 1997) is the intersection of physical and emotional health. Students in these programs are trained to work with patients who have medical diagnoses, with the goal of alleviating or preventing mental health symptoms that may be related to these conditions. They also learn to help patients make behavioral changes that improve their physical health and conduct psychological assessments for medical patients, such as pre-transplant evaluations to determine an individual’s psychological readiness for transplant surgery. A health psychology degree is going to be offered through a doctoral program in counseling or clinical psychology that incorporates specialized training in medical and biological factors affecting psychological wellness. For more about these degrees, see our health psychology degrees page.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
This is a unique APA specialty, as it is the only one that does not require licensure in all states. Individuals with business or industrial-organizational psychology (I/O psychology) degrees are trained to help businesses and organizations with projects such as increasing employee productivity and satisfaction, improving hiring procedures, and maximizing profitability. By conducting research and implementing new procedures to improve workspaces, work conditions, recruitment, training, and operations, business psychologists play a critical role in the total well-being of an organization’s human resources. Read more about industrial-organizational psychologists and what they do on our careers page, or continue learning about degree options on our I/O psychology degrees page.
Named a specialty in professional psychology in 1996, clinical neuropsychology was the first-named specialty by the APA. It is defined as the study and assessment of the central nervous system’s function and how it impacts human behavior, and is dedicated to broadening the understanding of the relationship between the brain and human behavior. A doctoral degree is needed to practice this type of psychology, usually accompanied by postdoctoral specialized education and training. Clinical neuropsychology PhD students study neuroanatomy, brain development, neurodiagnostic techniques, and the effects of neurological disorders. A clinical neuropsychologist may treat conditions such as dementia, Parkinson’s disease, seizures, learning disabilities, and metabolic disease as part of his or her practice. Find out more about these degrees on our neuropsychology degrees page.
School psychology was first recognized as a specialty by the APA in 1998, and a school psychology degree prepares graduates to apply psychological principles in school settings to improve students’ well-being and academic achievement. School psychology programs train graduates to provide a variety of services. These include conducting psychoeducational assessments to determine whether students require academic accommodations, helping develop interventions to manage a student’s classroom behavior, or providing therapy to students who are experiencing emotional difficulties. A PhD, PsyD, or EdS in school psychology is required to practice as a school psychologist. Some schools also offer master’s or specialist degrees in school psychology, which allow graduates to perform limited school psychology work in some states. You can find out more about school psychologists and their job responsibilities here, or you can read more about degree paths on our school psychology degrees page.
Additional APA Specialties
- Couple and Family Psychology
- Police and Public Safety Psychology
- Sleep Psychology
- Rehabilitation Psychology
- Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy
- Serious Mental Illness Psychology
- Clinical Psychopharmacolology
Sports psychology degree programs can be found at the master’s and doctoral levels, or can be sought as a specialization after a doctoral degree has been obtained in clinical, counseling, or school psychology (see the APA’s description for more information). A sport psychology degree program will provide training in psychological factors that affect athletes, such as motivation, team dynamics, performance strategies, and biobehavioral mechanisms underlying athletic achievement. People attending these programs are also trained to address psychological concerns that may be present in athletic settings, such as eating disorders, aggression, and burnout. While those with master’s degrees in sport psychology may work in the field, only those with doctoral degrees can become licensed psychologists. Sports psychologists and others working in the field may provide their specialized services to individual athletes or be employed by teams or larger athletic organizations. Continue reading about these degrees on our sport psychology degrees page.
Additional APA Proficiencies
Other Psychology Degrees
The following are well-known degrees in psychology that have not yet been designated as a specialty or proficiency by the APA.
Broadly, the field of social psychology concerns human interaction. In other words, social psychologists study how individuals’ feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are influenced by those around them. Students pursuing social psychology degrees learn a basic and applied understanding of research methodologies, advanced statistics, as well as theoretical and practical social psychology research techniques. Graduates who decide not to pursue an advanced degree may work in fields such as advertising, marketing, education, health care, or criminal justice. Find out more on our social psychology degrees page.
Students who are in a criminal psychology degree program learn about the role psychology plays in the legal system, preparing them for clinical and forensic responsibilities, including therapy and counseling. Criminal psychology programs teach students how to evaluate offenders and develop treatment plans. Additionally, this degree helps graduates be prepared for crisis intervention, psychopathology, victimology, and personality assessment. Understanding the theoretical and practical applications of various research methodologies are important parts of a criminal psychology degree program, as well as the process of jury selection and the nuances of a rehabilitation program. While there are many career opportunities in forensics, most graduates work in social service, mental health, government, or criminal justice. You can learn more about these degrees on our criminal psychology degrees page.
Human Factors Psychology
Human factors psychology (also known as human factors & engineering psychology or ergonomics) degree programs teach students about how humans and machines coexist, examining how humans interact with machines and how to improve systems and products so that the human interaction experience is a better one. Subjects common to a human factors degree include engineering, motor learning, design, and statistics. Many people employed in this field have an undergraduate background in psychology, industrial engineering, occupational therapy, or industrial design. To learn more, read our human factors psychology degrees page.
Find Schools with Psychology Programs in Your State
If you would like to explore schools with psychology programs in a specific state, click on any state below. There, you will find information about featured undergraduate programs and graduate programs specializing in psychology in your state, as well as a comprehensive directory of psychology degree programs near you.
- Select One
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- Washington DC
- West Virginia
Finding Accredited Programs
One of the most important considerations when choosing a psychology program is whether the school is accredited by a regional or national accreditation body. The US Department of Education recognizes a handful of accreditation bodies who are trusted to determine whether a school provides an acceptable level of quality. Accreditation is important for students for several reasons. A school must be accredited for students to receive federal student aid, and credits from an unaccredited college or university may not be accepted by other schools when transferring or applying to graduate school. Additionally, employers may not recognize your psychology degree if it is from an unaccredited school. Both online and on-campus schools are accredited by the same accreditation bodies. To find whether a school is accredited, you can look it up in the US Department of Education’s searchable database.
In addition to school accreditation, the American Psychological Association (APA) accredits doctoral-level psychology programs. This includes doctoral programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, which are the three types of psychology degrees that allow individuals to become licensed and practice as psychologists. The APA does not accredit programs at the associate, bachelor’s, or master’s levels. You can learn more about APA accreditation on the APA website. To become licensed in most states, you will need to attend an APA-accredited program.
- American Psychological Association: National organization for students and professionals pursuing a wide variety of careers in psychology
- Association for Psychological Science: News and information about the advancement of scientific psychology
- Studential Postgraduate Options Guide: Information and resources about evaluating postgraduate degrees, graduate and postgraduate internships, and more
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the difference between a BA in psychology and a BS in psychology?
According to the APA, the difference between a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in psychology and a Bachelor of Science (BS) in psychology is negligible. Some schools will offer a BA and others will offer a BS. According to the APA, even if your school offers both, it really isn’t important which degree title you choose. What is important is that the courses you take as part of your bachelor’s program are ones that will complement and prepare you for the graduate program you may later choose.
Do I need a master’s degree in psychology before getting a doctorate degree?
Most PsyD and PhD programs do not require a master’s degree, so you can begin your doctoral degree program immediately following your bachelor’s degree. A master’s in psychology, however, can be a good way to explore the field further before committing to a doctoral degree. You also may be able to count some of your master’s coursework toward your PhD or PsyD should you choose to pursue it later.
What is the difference between a Doctor of Psychology and a PhD in Psychology?
In the fields of counseling, clinical, or school psychology, a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) degree is more practice-focused, while a PhD in Psychology is more research-focused. However, individuals in both programs receive clinical training and are required to conduct research by completing at least a thesis and dissertation project. PhDs are more common and are found at private or public research universities. PsyD programs are normally found at professional schools of psychology, which may or may not be at a research or teaching university. You should conduct independent research on both types of programs and ultimately choose the type that more closely matches your career goals, keeping in mind that APA accreditation is important if you are seeking licensure.
Some schools also offer PhD degrees in other areas of psychology, such as cognitive, developmental, or social psychology. In these programs, students focus entirely on research and do not receive any clinical training.
What jobs can I get with a psychology degree?
Besides providing therapy and conducting assessments, there are a wide variety of career options for psychology majors, since what they learn is applicable to many different businesses and fields. For example, some careers for psychology majors include market research analyst, sales representative, teacher, or victim advocate. Understanding how the mind works and how people behave and act gives people with this degree opportunities to apply their knowledge to many jobs. For more information about the jobs you can get with a psychology degree, see our Psychology Careers page.
Which psychology degree has the best job prospects?
The number of psychologists employed in the United States (including clinical, counseling, school, industrial-organizational, and “all other”) is expected to increase by 13.5% through 2028, which is faster than the average occupation.11 Job prospects are best for graduates who hold a doctoral degree, especially those with a degree in clinical, counseling, or school psychology.
1. American Psychological Association, Center for Workforce Studies, Data Tools:: https://www.apa.org/workforce/data-tools/
2. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 20197 National Survey of College Graduates: https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsf22310
3. American Psychological Association, Careers in Psychology: https://www.apa.org/education-career/guide/careers
4. American Psychological Association, Commission on Accreditation 2020 Annual Report Online, Summary Data: Doctoral Programs: https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/a14f9462/files/uploaded/2020%20Doctoral%20Summary%20Tables%20FINAL.pdf
5. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2021 Occupational Employment and Wages, Clinical and Counseling Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193033.htm
6. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2021 Occupational Employment and Wages, Industrial-Organizational Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193032.htm
7. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2021 Occupational Employment and Wages, School Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193034.htm
8. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2021 Occupational Employment and Wages, Psychologists, All Other: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm
9. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics List of 2020 Digest Tables: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2020menu_tables.asp
10. American Psychological Association, Specialties and Proficiencies: https://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/index
11. Projections Central Long Term Occupational Projections: https://projectionscentral.org/Projections/LongTerm